National Museum of Western Art
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This building is born because the French government decided to seize the Japanese citizen M. Matsukata much of the Impressionist art collection amassed during 1916 and 1923, taking it as a "prisoner." Within the collection were works by El Greco, Rodin sculptures, etc.
In 1956, Japan asked France to the return of these works, so the Gallic government agreed on the condition it is a French architect who developed the project of building to house such works. Another condition for return is that they should title it: "National Museum of Western Art."
The museum to house the Matsukata collection was given to the Swiss-French Charles-Edouard Jeanneret-Gris (Le Corbusier) in 1955, the project being completed by three Japanese learners in his study of Paris: Kunio Maekawa, Junzo Sakakura and Takamasa Yoshizaka. He was later built in 1958 and completed in 1959 by Shimizu Corporation.
The site is located in Ueno Park, north of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo, closing the circle of buildings consisting of the National History Museum, the Museum of Fine Arts and the Museum of Science. The address is: 7-7 Ueno-Koen, Taito-Ku, 110 Tokyo, Japan.
Le Corbusier proposes a museum "square spiral." The layout of the exhibition spaces spiral is an argument that applies in its projects, from the outside, the building appears as an opaque container off the ground on 'piles' and with only two openings that link the interior with its environment and, connected by a sculptural staircase.
In 1929 Le Corbusier designed a model of unlimited growth Museum (Musée à croissance illimitée) for Mundaneum Geneva. It was a square spiral was developing and eventually grow according to the needs of the project.
There are three versions of this type of museum in the world: Sanskar Kendra in Ahmedabbad (1957), the Museum and Art Gallery Governmental Chandigarh (1965) and the National Museum of Western Art in Tokyo ( 1959).
The National Museum of Western Art is a building that conforms to the exhibition gallery from square (square spiral), accompanied by a pavilion for temporary exhibitions and plays a building called "miracle box"
In 1979 a new wing was added to the museum, developed by Maekawa and respecting the original state. In 1997 added a new room for special exhibitions, while the whole building was strengthened with new seismic techniques while respecting the original state again.
- Exhibition Gallery (Spiral Square)
Access is by the porch made piles, because all the container is high. In the central hall there is an exhibition of the nineteenth century, illuminated by a skylight and accompanied by a ramp. At this level there is access to the conference room, exit the galleries of the museum and the main lobby, dressing rooms, library room, attention, access to gallery B, toilets, library, museum storerooms, workshops, reserve materials
This level contains a large room permanent gallery Matsukata, temporary exhibitions, permanent stands, conference and cinema, museum reservations, access ramp.
This plant has offices employees, secretarial area, toilets, room care, tea preparation, documentation room, meeting room, recreation room, conference room, project room, main staircase, gallery electric.
This plant has a shed roof and skylight, a roof ladder, several pots.
- Miracle Box
The box of miracles is composed of an amphitheater with capacity for 540 people, indoor stage and dressing rooms for artists and designers. On the other hand we have the theater is divided into outdoor amphitheater and a "scene" in the water.
- Pavilion for temporary exhibitions
It is a site with several rooms and was characterized in the project to have a composition roof slabs and inverted umbrella and a ramp leading to the second level and a staircase.
Structure and Materials
The structure is made from reinforced concrete columns arranged in a grid of 6.35x6.35 m, supporting the entire building, leaving open plan based on concrete slab in a grid system, ensuring that [[Le Corbusier] ] came to practice during his work.
In the gallery's brick walls are detached from the main structure, with absolute freedom to the provision of space. On the conference room, which is an isolated element consists of a large volume that has a concrete bleachers, as the elements that are on the outside were made of reinforced concrete as is the case Exit the museum (stairs).
The materials used are reinforced concrete in the structure and the lining of the external walls are made based on prefabricated steel trim and details of wood on the inside.
- Nmwa 250.jpg
- Le Corbusier et son atelier rue de Sèvres 35 : Œuvre complète de 1952-1957. Boesiger Zurich, Willy. Les Editions D´Architecture Zurich. Switzerland,1995.