Unite d´habitation of Marseille
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The design for this building was originally dubbed "Housing Unit" (Unité d'Habitation in French), and it became the basis for several buildings designed by the same architect throughout Europe of the same name. To distinguish the buildings, this original building in Marseille, France, is now called the Radiant City, and known in French as Cité Radieuse. It also known informally as the "House of the Mad" (Maison du Fada in French). This building was the first order Corbusier received from the French state, and it is one of Corbusier's iconic projects and one of the basic references for any architect. Starts to be scheduled immediately after the Second World War (1945-46), entering into construction in 1951. This work, on an unprecedented scale for its author, is relentizada by budget problems and will take five years to run, instead of the originally planned twelve months
The project was the first opportunity to implement Corbusier's theories, to a scale that would lead to Modulor. At the same time was an innovative integration of a system of distributing goods and services that provide independent support to the dwelling unit, responding to the needs of its residents and ensuring operational autonomy in relation to the outside. This self-intended by nature Corbusier was an expression of concern that began to emerge in the twenties, in their analysis of urban phenomena of distribution and circulation began to impact on modern society.
With its system of housing, Le Corbusier was opposed to the desurbanización or, as he said, the "mania of the houses." Instead, he skyscrapers of urban architecture as integrated units to be established exactly a role and have a predetermined. If they could follow exactly all the services of the community, to fulfill the dream of both the garden city, as at the foot of the skyscraper would be enough space for a large green area.
The Unité, designed as a "vertical garden city", as opposed to the construction of villas, is implanted in four different sites before finding their place in the Boulevard Michelet, 280 Cité radieuse Le Corbusier in the "elegant suburbs of Marseille, France
The project was an innovative integration of a system of distributing goods and services that provide independent support to the dwelling unit, responding to the needs of its residents and ensuring operational autonomy in relation to the outside.
This is specifically designed to rehouse the victims of the destroyed neighborhoods of the city and put in place a principle whose development dates back to the villa property "and" jagged blocks "of 1922
It was the first opportunity to implement Corbusier's theories, to a scale that would lead to Modulor.
This self-intended by nature Corbusier was an expression of concern that began to emerge in the twenties, in their analysis of urban phenomena of distribution and circulation began to impact on modern society.
In 1950, Le Corbusier developed the concept of module, a new system of proportions based on the Renaissance, which replaces the traditional metric.
This measurement system is based on the actions of human beings, contrary to what decimal system. In the words of Le Corbusier, a machine, a cabinet or a newspaper are extensions of man. And the architecture and therefore, any object created by man, should impacts both mental and emotional level but also at more physical or body. " Projects like the Unity Room Marseille (1947-1952, France), the Chapel of Ronchamp (1950-1954, France) and the city of Chandigarh in India were based on the system Modulor.
Conception of the idea
The units of Corbusier in Marseilles, and later in Nantes, which had consolidated the concepts unfolding around the idea of modern living.
The principles that gave devenían body of an idea of architecture as a product of rationality, a tool to delineate social system as a system of reason. It incorporated principles of functionality and economy, recognizing architecture in order to half the urban environment and offer better opportunities for groups. The creation of a new mechanical movement, organization of functions, design of a system of integrated, all these possibilities were used in a disciplined manner and reflect the enormous willingness to intervene in the process of architecture and modern society.
The proposed housing units is made up of Marseille architectural unit that houses 1600 people, where the apartments are suited to individuals or towns.
The building is an enormous construction 140 meters long, 24 meters wide and 56 meters high, and provided an internal operation of more than 26 separate services. Each floor contains 58 duplex apartments accessible from a wide corridor every three domestic plants, "streets in the air." Some apartments occupy the floor of the corridor and the lower the other corridor and higher.
Inside the building, the 337 apartments are crossed each other in the vast network of reinforced concrete. A half height, a two-storey shopping area extends along the 135m of the building, which also had rooms, a restaurant, a hotel, laundry and other services delivered.
Common roof spaces
Another interesting aspect of the dwelling unit is to use the roof as a function, being one of the areas of greatest vitality. Included:
-an athletics track, 300 meters
These services were arranged so that they assimilate the visibility provided by the height of the building, between the hills and the sea, thus enriching the life experiences of residents.
The set is based on a single block built on stilts free, allowing the soil to release any garden and leisure, with its reinforced concrete structure, similar to a shelf.
On these piles, the building was designed in a way that allows large permeability at ground level, the level of the earth as a function of communication between the exterior and interior, with access to the communications vertical.
The cross section shown as two apartments with galleries are so intertwined that there is a central access corridor at three levels, optimizing the space of movement
These concepts will become part of the iconography of Corbusier, who dramatize the need for relationship building with the urban environment.
The materials used are apparently finished with reinforced concrete and glass, no decorations, no elegance, both indoors and outdoors
The facade is protected by canopies are prefabricated elements of this material
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